Improvement citrus production under salinity stress

Improvement citrus production under salinity stress

Citrus is suggested to be one of the most important fruit crops all over the world, especially in warm temperate regions, occupied the third position between fruit crops in the world after grapes and apples.
Moreover, Egypt ranks as the 8th among the world top 10 producers of citrus (FAO, 2011)
The citrus is a major fruit crop cultivated in Egypt as its acreage, production and exportation potentialities are concerned. It is the largest horticultural industry, also, citrus cultivated area increased rapidly from year to year during the last few years, reached 483296 feddan in 2011 from the total fruit crop area, which  estimated to be 1388153 feddans, the fruiting acreage of citrus occupies 395731 feddan produced 3730685 tons with average of 9.5 tons/ fed. (Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation2011)
Extension of the cultivated area is due to: I) fit environmental conditions. II) increasing demands of local consumption and  III)  its highly economic value as a main source for exportation to the European countries and the Gulf countries. Which is expected to boom in the future, such extension in area encourage establishing more studies towards finding out an appropriate management for improving the production and fruit quality.
Salinity of soil and irrigation water regimes and drought conditions are considered to be serious and major problems that face citrus growers in arid and semiarid areas and citrus trees are classified as salt-sensitive.
In Egypt, the newly reclaimed regions, whereas, alkaline soils, salinity water and mal-nutrition reduced citrus production.
Sweet oranges the main grown citrus species in Egypt. Navel orange  and Valencia orange  cv, ranks the first and second position in citrus varieties in Egypt.
Generally, natural Magnetite and humate compounds can be used as soil improvement products with a superior "residual effect" in the soil and cheaper in compared to other chemical substances which practically used in agricultural systems.
Application will help in a lowering cost and give safety product for crops users and increasing benefits as time function than other chemical applications.
Moreover, Magnetite may be play an important role in cation uptake capacity and has a positive effect on immobile plant nutrient uptake.
 The need for these humic products in soil systems has been substantiated; many immobilizing materials increased soil pH, humic acid resulted in an increase cation exchange capacity (CEC), and decrease in metal mobility.
      In some cases, the addition of alkaline materials simultaneously increased the dissolved organic matter (D O M) concentration in the soil solution, resulting in increasing leaching of metal –D O M complex.
The main target of this study was implement growth and fruiting of Valencia orange trees under salinity stress by natural materials ().
The previous studies through different new area like Nubaria and Salhia areas dealing with the positive effect of (Magnetite and Humate compounds) on vegetative growth characters, nutritional status of the trees, yield as well the fruit characters in citrus trees under the newly reclaimed soils in Egypt.
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